Georeferenzierung von Luftbildern (QGIS3)

In the tutorial Georeferenzierung von Kartenblättern und eingescannten Karten (QGIS3), we covered the basic georeferencing process in QGIS. That method involved reading the coordinates from your scanned map and entering them manually as control points. Many times though, you may not have the coordinates printed on your map, or you are trying to georeference an image. In that case, you can use another georeferenced data source as your input. This tutorial will teach you how to use existing open data sources in your georeferencing process.

Überblick über die Aufgabe

We will georeference a high resolution balloon-imagery using reference coordinates from OpenStreetMap.

Weitere Fähigkeiten, die wir erlernen

  • Using XYZ Tile Layers as a Basemap in QGIS.

  • Using Built-in Nominatim Geocoder.

  • Setting a user-defined No-Data value for a layer.

Beschaffung der Daten

In diesem Tutorial werden wir Drachen- oder Ballon-Luftbildaufnahmen nutzen. Die Aufnahmen werden hier gesammelt: The Public Laboratory. Man findet hier auch georeferenzierte Aufnahmen. Wir werden aber die nicht georeferenzierten Aufnahmen im JPG-Format herunterladen und den Prozess der Georeferenzierung in QGIS durchgehen.

Lade folgendes JPG-Bild herunter: Washington Square Park, New York. Du kannst mit der rechten Maustaste auf den link klicken und auswählen:guilabel:Save link as….

Der Einfachheit halber kannst du auch eine Kopie des Datensatzes unter folgendem link herunterladen:

newyorkcity-washingtonsquarepark.jpg

Arbeitsablauf

  1. Wir nutzen eine Hintergrundkarte von OpenStreetMap, um Koordinaten zu erfassen. QGIS3 unterstützt von Hause aus Kachellayer. Kachellayer werden auch als „XYZ-Layer“ bezeichnet. Die Layer setzen sich aus einzelnen Kacheln zusammen, die nach Zoomstufe (Z) in einem X,Y-Raster angeordnet werden. Du findest den OpenStreetMap Layer unter:guilabel:XYZ Tiles im Browser Panel. Ziehe den Layer in die Hauptarbeitsfläche. Nachdem der Layer geladen ist, achte auf das unten rechts angezeigte Koordinatensystem (Coordinate Reference System - CRS): EPSG 3857 Pseudo Mercator. Das ist wichtig, da wir die Koordinaten beim Georeferenzieren in diesem Koordinatensystem vom geladenen Layer ableiten werden.

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Bemerkung

Hier this page findest du mehr Details zu „XYZ-Layern“ und wie man weitere Hintergrundkarten in QGIS hinzufügt.

  1. The image we are georeferencing is for Washington Square Park, New York. You can zoom/pan to locate this park on the map. But that is cumbersome and practical. From QGIS version 3.20 onwards, there is built-in support for the OpenStreetMap based Nominatim Geocoder. Click the search bar in the bottom left of the QGIS window. To use this as a geocoder prefix, the search place with >. Searching for > Washington Square Park will pop up a list of addresses to choose from. Click the first address.

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  1. The map canvas will be centered to the Square Park. Now let’s start georeferencing. Launch the Georeferencer from Raster ‣ Georeferencer.

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  1. For georeferencing an aerial image, we have to choose coordinate points from the OpenStreetMap, so let’s first dock the Georeferencer tool into to main QGIS window. Select Configure Georeference from Settings ‣ Configure Georeference.

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  1. Check Show georeferencer window docked and click OK.

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  1. The Georeferencer window will be docked at the bottom of the main QGIS window. Let us load the image file by clicking the Open Raster icon in the Georeference window and navigating to the downloaded JPG file. Click Open.

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  1. Before adding Ground Control Points (GCP), we need to define the Transformation Settings. Click on the Transformation Settings icon to open the Transformation Settings dialog. Choose the Transformation type as Polynomial 2. See QGIS Documentation to learn about different transformation types and their uses. As noted earlier, our base map is in EPSG 3857 Pseudo Mercator CRS, so set that as the Target CRS. You can leave the Output raster name to the default ad choose LZW as the Compression. Check the Use 0 for transparency when needed. Check the Save GCP points to store the points as a separate file for future purposes. Make sure the Load in QGIS when done option is checked. Click OK.

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  1. Now click on the Add Point button on the toolbar and select an easily identifiable location on the image. Corners, intersections, poles etc., make good control points. Once you click on the image at a control point location, you will see a pop-up asking you to enter map coordinates. Click the button From map canvas.

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  1. In the OpenStreetMap layer, click on the exact location in the reference layer. The coordinates will be auto-populated from your click on the map canvas. Click Ok.

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Bemerkung

Tip: When selecting a GCP on a building, always choose the bottom of the building. Most aerial and satellite imagery have leaning buildings, so picking a point on the rooftop will introduce errors.

  1. Similarly, choose at least 6 points on the image and add their coordinates from the reference layer. Once you have added the minimum number of points required for the transform, you will notice that the GCPs now have non-zero dX, dY, and Residual error values. If a particular GCP has unusually high error values, that usually means a human error in entering the coordinate values. So you can delete that GCP and capture it again.

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  1. Once you are satisfied with the GCPs, click Start georeferencing. This will start the process of warping the image using the GCPs and creating the target raster. Once the process is finished, you will see the layer loaded in QGIS. Close the Georeferencer window.

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  1. Now click on the Open layer styling panel icon and Switch to the Transparency tab. Add 255 as the Additional no data value. This will remove the white border around the image. Now you will see your georeferenced image nicely overlaid on the base layer.

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Bemerkung

8-bit Bilder haben Pixelwerte von 0-255. Dabei bedeutet 0 schwarz und 255 weiß.

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