Escrever Scripts de Python para o Framework do Processing (QGIS3)

Pode-se escrever scripts autossuficientes (‘standalone’) em PyQgis que possam ser rodados via o Console Pythons do QGIS. Com algumas modificações. você pode fazer seus scripts autossuficientes rodarem via o Framework do Processing. Há diversas vantagens nisso. Primeiro, receber entradas (input) do usuário e escrever arquivos de saída (output) são bem mais fáceis, já que o Framework do Processing oferece uma interface de usuário padronizada para eles. Segundo, estando o seu script na Caixa de Ferramentas de Processamento (Processing Toolbox) também permite que ele faça parte de qualquer Modelo de Processamento (Processing Model) ou que seja rodado como uma tarefa em série (Batch) com múltiplas entradas. Esse tutorial mostrará como escrever um script python personalizado que possa pertencer ao Framework do Processing no QGIS.

Nota

The Processing API was completely overhauled in QGIS3. Please refer to this guide for best practices and tips.

Visão geral da tarefa

Nosso script irá desenvolver uma operação de dissolução (dissolve) baseado em um campo de escolha do usuário. Também irá para as feições dissolvidas resumir os valores de um outro campo. No exemplo, iremos dissolver um shapefile dos países baseado no atributo CONTINENT e somar o campo POP_EST para calcular a população total de uma região dissolvida.

Obter os dados

Usaremos a base Admin 0 - Countries do Natural Earth.

Faça o download de Admin 0 - countries shapefile..

Fonte [NATURALEARTH]

Por conveniência, você pode baixar o geopackage diretamente do caminho abaixo:

ne_global.gpkg

Procedimento

  1. No Painel do Navegador QGIS, encontre o diretório onde você salvou seus dados baixados. Expanda o registro zip ou o gpkg e selecione a camada ne_10m_admin_0_countries. Arrate a camada para a tela.

../../_images/1108.png
  1. Vá em Processar ‣ Caixa de Ferramentas. Clique no :guilabel:botão Scripts na barra de ferramentas e selecione Criar Novo Script a partir de Modelo.

../../_images/268.png
  1. O modelo contém todo o código básico requerido para o Framework do Processing reconhecê-lo como um script do Processing, e gerencia as entradas/saídas. Vamos começar a alterar o modelo de exemplo para as nossas necessidades. Primeiro mude o nome da classe de ExampleProcessingAlgorithm para DissolveProcessingAlgorithm. Esse nome também precisa ser atualizado no método createInstance. Adicione um comentário (docstring) na classe para que explique o que o algoritmo faz.

../../_images/339.png
  1. As you scroll down, you will see methods that assign name, group, description etc. to the script. Change the return values for name method to be dissolve_with_sum, displayName method to Dissolve with Sum, group method and groupId method to scripts. Change the return value of shortHelpString method to a description that will appear to the user. Click the Save button.
../../_images/424.png
  1. Nomeie o script com dissolve_with_sum e salve-o no local padrão na pasta profiles ‣ default ‣ processing ‣ scripts.

../../_images/524.png
  1. Agora iremos definir as entradas para o script. O modelo já contém uma definição para uma camada vetorial INPUT` e uma camada OUTPUT. Nós iremos adicionar 2 novas camadas de entradas, que permitirão ao usuário selecionar o campo para dissolver, DISSOLVE_FIELD, e o campo para somar, SUM_FIELD. Adicione um novo comando de import no topo e o código a seguir no método initAlgorithm. Clique no botão Run para visualizar as mudanças.

from qgis.core import QgsProcessingParameterField

self.addParameter(
        QgsProcessingParameterField(
                self.DISSOLVE_FIELD,
                'Choose Dissolve Field',
                '',
                self.INPUT))

self.addParameter(
        QgsProcessingParameterField(
                self.SUM_FIELD,
                'Choose Sum Field',
                '',
                self.INPUT))
../../_images/6a.png ../../_images/6b.png
  1. Você verá uma janela Dissolve with Sum com as nossas novas entradas que definimos. Selecione a camada ne_10m_admin_0_countries como Input layer`. Ambos os campos Dissolve Field e Sum Fields são filtrados tendo como referência a camada de entrada, ou seja, eles serão preenchidos com os campos existentes da camada de entrada. Clique no botão Close.

../../_images/723.png
  1. Now we define our custom logic for processing data in the processAlgorithm method. This method gets passed a dictionary called parameters. It contains the inputs that the user has selected. There are helper methods that allow you to take these inputs and create appropriate objects. We first get our inputs using parameterAsSource and parameterAsString methods. Next we want to create a feature sink where we will write the output. QGIS3 has a new class called QgsFeatureSink which is the preferred way to create objects that can accept new features. The output needs only 2 fields - one for the value of dissolved field and another for the sum of the selected field.
from PyQt5.QtCore import QVariant
from qgis.core import QgsField, QgsFields

source = self.parameterAsSource(
        parameters,
        self.INPUT,
        context)
dissolve_field = self.parameterAsString(
        parameters,
        self.DISSOLVE_FIELD,
        context)
sum_field = self.parameterAsString(
        parameters,
        self.SUM_FIELD,
        context)

fields = QgsFields()
fields.append(QgsField(dissolve_field, QVariant.String))
fields.append(QgsField('SUM_' + sum_field, QVariant.Double))

(sink, dest_id) = self.parameterAsSink(
        parameters,
        self.OUTPUT,
        context, fields, source.wkbType(), source.sourceCrs())
../../_images/8a.png ../../_images/8b.png
  1. Now we will ready the input features and create a dictionary to hold the unique values from the dissolve_field and the sum of the values from the sum_field. Note the use of feedback.pushInfo() method to communicate the status with the user.
feedback.pushInfo('Extracting unique values from dissolve_field and computing sum')

features = source.getFeatures()
unique_values = set(f[dissolve_field] for f in features)

# Get Indices of dissolve field and sum field
dissolveIdx = source.fields().indexFromName(dissolve_field)
sumIdx = source.fields().indexFromName(sum_field)

# Find all unique values for the given dissolve_field and
# sum the corresponding values from the sum_field
sum_unique_values = {}
attrs = [{dissolve_field: f[dissolveIdx], sum_field: f[sumIdx]} for f in source.getFeatures()]
for unique_value in unique_values:
        val_list = [ f_attr[sum_field] for f_attr in attrs if f_attr[dissolve_field] == unique_value]
        sum_unique_values[unique_value] = sum(val_list)
../../_images/923.png
  1. Next, we will call the built-in processing algorithm native:dissolve on the input layer to generate the dissolved geometries. Once we have the dissolved geometries, we iterate through the output of the dissolve algorithm and create new features to be added to the output. At the end we return the dest_id FeatureSink as the output. Now the script is ready. Click the Run button.

Nota

Notice the use of parameters[self.INPUT] to fetch the input layer from the parameters dictionary directly without defining it as a source. As we are passing the input object to the algorithm without doing anything with it, it’s not necessary to define it as a source.

from qgis.core import QgsFeature

# Running the processing dissolve algorithm
feedback.pushInfo('Dissolving features')
dissolved_layer = processing.run("native:dissolve", {
        'INPUT': parameters[self.INPUT],
        'FIELD': dissolve_field,
        'OUTPUT': 'memory:'
        }, context=context, feedback=feedback)['OUTPUT']

# Read the dissolved layer and create output features
for f in dissolved_layer.getFeatures():
        new_feature =  QgsFeature()
        # Set geometry to dissolved geometry
        new_feature.setGeometry(f.geometry())
        # Set attributes from sum_unique_values dictionary that we had computed
        new_feature.setAttributes([f[dissolve_field], sum_unique_values[f[dissolve_field]]])
        sink.addFeature(new_feature, QgsFeatureSink.FastInsert)

return {self.OUTPUT: dest_id}
../../_images/10a.png ../../_images/10b.png
  1. In the Dissolve with Sum, dialog, select ne_10m_admin_0_countries as the Input layer, CONTINENT as the Dissolve field and POP_EST as the Sum field. Click Run.
../../_images/1126.png
  1. Once the processing is finished, click the Close button and switch to the main QGIS window.
../../_images/1223.png
  1. You will see the dissolved output layer with one feature for every continent and the total population summed from the individual countries belonging to that continent.
../../_images/1322.png
  1. One another advantage of writing processing script is that the methods within the Processing Framework are aware of layer selection and automatically filter your inputs to use only the selected features. This happens because we are defining our input as a QgsProcessingParameterFeatureSource. A feature source allows use of ANY object which contains vector features, not just a vector layer, so when there are selected features in your layer and ask Processing to use selected features, the input is passed on to your script as a QgsProcessingFeatureSource object containing selected features and not the full vector layer. Here’s a quick demonstration of this functionality. Let’s say we want to dissolve only certain continents. Let’s create a selection using Select feature by Expression tool.
../../_images/1421.png
  1. Enter the following expression to select features from North and South America and click Select.
"CONTINENT" = 'North America' OR "CONTINENT" = 'South America'
../../_images/1521.png
  1. You will see the selected features highlighted in yellow. Locate the dissolve_with_sum script and double-click it to run it.
../../_images/1619.png
  1. In the Dissolve with Sum dialog, select the ne_10m_admin_0_countries as the Input layer. This time, make sure you check the Selected features only box. Choose SUBREGION as the Dissolve field and POP_EST as the Sum field.
../../_images/1720.png
  1. Once the processing finishes, click Close and switch back to the main QGIS window. You will notice a new layer with only the selected features dissolved. Click Identify button and click on a feature to inspect and verify that the script worked correctly.
../../_images/1819.png

Below is the complete script for reference. You may modify it to suit your needs.

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
***************************************************************************
*                                                                         *
*   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify  *
*   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by  *
*   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or     *
*   (at your option) any later version.                                   *
*                                                                         *
***************************************************************************
"""

from PyQt5.QtCore import QCoreApplication, QVariant
from qgis.core import (QgsProcessing,
                       QgsFeatureSink,
                       QgsFeature,
                       QgsField,
                       QgsFields,
                       QgsProcessingException,
                       QgsProcessingAlgorithm,
                       QgsProcessingParameterFeatureSource,
                       QgsProcessingParameterFeatureSink,
                       QgsProcessingParameterField,
                       )
import processing


class DissolveProcessingAlgorithm(QgsProcessingAlgorithm):
    """
    Dissolve algorithm that dissolves features based on selected
    attribute and summarizes the selected field by cumputing the
    sum of dissolved features.
    """
    INPUT = 'INPUT'
    OUTPUT = 'OUTPUT'
    DISSOLVE_FIELD = 'dissolve_field'
    SUM_FIELD = 'sum_field'

    def tr(self, string):
        """
        Returns a translatable string with the self.tr() function.
        """
        return QCoreApplication.translate('Processing', string)

    def createInstance(self):
        return DissolveProcessingAlgorithm()

    def name(self):
        """
        Returns the algorithm name, used for identifying the algorithm. This
        string should be fixed for the algorithm, and must not be localised.
        The name should be unique within each provider. Names should contain
        lowercase alphanumeric characters only and no spaces or other
        formatting characters.
        """
        return 'dissolve_with_sum'

    def displayName(self):
        """
        Returns the translated algorithm name, which should be used for any
        user-visible display of the algorithm name.
        """
        return self.tr('Dissolve with Sum')

    def group(self):
        """
        Returns the name of the group this algorithm belongs to. This string
        should be localised.
        """
        return self.tr('scripts')

    def groupId(self):
        """
        Returns the unique ID of the group this algorithm belongs to. This
        string should be fixed for the algorithm, and must not be localised.
        The group id should be unique within each provider. Group id should
        contain lowercase alphanumeric characters only and no spaces or other
        formatting characters.
        """
        return 'scripts'

    def shortHelpString(self):
        """
        Returns a localised short helper string for the algorithm. This string
        should provide a basic description about what the algorithm does and the
        parameters and outputs associated with it..
        """
        return self.tr("Dissolves selected features and creates and sums values of features that were dissolved")

    def initAlgorithm(self, config=None):
        """
        Here we define the inputs and output of the algorithm, along
        with some other properties.
        """
        # We add the input vector features source. It can have any kind of
        # geometry.
        self.addParameter(
            QgsProcessingParameterFeatureSource(
                self.INPUT,
                self.tr('Input layer'),
                [QgsProcessing.TypeVectorAnyGeometry]
            )
        )
        self.addParameter(
            QgsProcessingParameterField(
                self.DISSOLVE_FIELD,
                'Choose Dissolve Field',
                '',
                self.INPUT))
        self.addParameter(
            QgsProcessingParameterField(
                self.SUM_FIELD,
                'Choose Sum Field',
                '',
                self.INPUT))
        # We add a feature sink in which to store our processed features (this
        # usually takes the form of a newly created vector layer when the
        # algorithm is run in QGIS).
        self.addParameter(
            QgsProcessingParameterFeatureSink(
                self.OUTPUT,
                self.tr('Output layer')
            )
        )

    def processAlgorithm(self, parameters, context, feedback):
        """
        Here is where the processing itself takes place.
        """
        source = self.parameterAsSource(
            parameters,
            self.INPUT,
            context
        )
        dissolve_field = self.parameterAsString(
            parameters,
            self.DISSOLVE_FIELD,
            context)
        sum_field = self.parameterAsString(
            parameters,
            self.SUM_FIELD,
            context)
        
        fields = QgsFields()
        fields.append(QgsField(dissolve_field, QVariant.String))
        fields.append(QgsField('SUM_' + sum_field, QVariant.Double))
        
        (sink, dest_id) = self.parameterAsSink(
            parameters,
            self.OUTPUT,
            context, fields, source.wkbType(), source.sourceCrs())
        
        # Create a dictionary to hold the unique values from the 
        # dissolve_field and the sum of the values from the sum_field
        feedback.pushInfo('Extracting unique values from dissolve_field and computing sum')
        features = source.getFeatures()
        unique_values = set(f[dissolve_field] for f in features)
        # Get Indices of dissolve field and sum field
        dissolveIdx = source.fields().indexFromName(dissolve_field)
        sumIdx = source.fields().indexFromName(sum_field)
        
        # Find all unique values for the given dissolve_field and
        # sum the corresponding values from the sum_field
        sum_unique_values = {}
        attrs = [{dissolve_field: f[dissolveIdx], sum_field: f[sumIdx]}
                for f in source.getFeatures()]
        for unique_value in unique_values:
            val_list = [ f_attr[sum_field] 
                for f_attr in attrs if f_attr[dissolve_field] == unique_value]
            sum_unique_values[unique_value] = sum(val_list)
        
        # Running the processing dissolve algorithm
        feedback.pushInfo('Dissolving features')
        dissolved_layer = processing.run("native:dissolve", {
            'INPUT': parameters[self.INPUT],
            'FIELD': dissolve_field,
            'OUTPUT': 'memory:'
        }, context=context, feedback=feedback)['OUTPUT']
        
        # Read the dissolved layer and create output features
        for f in dissolved_layer.getFeatures():
            new_feature =  QgsFeature()
            # Set geometry to dissolved geometry
            new_feature.setGeometry(f.geometry())
            # Set attributes from sum_unique_values dictionary that we had computed
            new_feature.setAttributes([f[dissolve_field], sum_unique_values[f[dissolve_field]]])
            sink.addFeature(new_feature, QgsFeatureSink.FastInsert)
        
        return {self.OUTPUT: dest_id}
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